انا اخوكم ،، طالب ماجستير ارشاد نفسي بجامعة الملك فيصل ،، وقد كلفت بترجمه عدد نصوص ،، والحمد لله لم يتبقى لي سوى هذا ، وقد عجزت وأغلب مراكز الترجمه بالدمام على ترجمته لمصطلحاته الطبيه ،،،، طبعاً الترجمه من محرك قوقل خاطئة حيث يعطي اختصار ( SFD ) صندوق التنميه العقارية …. وحسب كلام الدكتور هو اضطرابات جسديه الشكل … ساعدوني تكفون
Somatoform disorders (SFD) refer to a group of psychiatric conditions that are characterized by, often multiple and variable, somatic symptoms (e.g. limb pain, stomach disturbance) that are commonly seen in general medical practice and primary care but that defy medical explanation.1 It has been reported recently that patients with a subtype of SFD, namely body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), exhibit impaired ability to correctly identify facially expressed emotion. Buhlmann et al.2 reported that a group of 20 patients with BDD exhibited a general impairment, relative to matched healthy controls, in their recognition of the primary emotions from facial stimuli. This finding was replicated by the same research group in a subsequent study.3 To date, no studies have addressed if other forms of SFD are associated with a similar deficit in facial emotion recognition. This is an important avenue of research as such a deficit could contribute to the interpersonal problems that have been reported in patients with SFD.4
A concept that might contribute to our understanding of facial emotion recognition in patients with SFD is alexithymia. This concept was developed by Sifneos5 and is characterized by an inability to describe and identify one’s own feelings, the absence of fantasies, and the utilization of an externally oriented analytical cognitive style. Notably, alexithymia has also been implicated in problems in the recognition of facially expressed emotion. For example, a number of studies [e.g.6–8] have reported that individuals meeting (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, TAS) criteria for alexithymia exhibited significantly impaired emotion recognition from facial stimuli relative to nonalexithymic participants. With these findings in mind, it has been suggested7 that the commonly reported problems in putting emotion into words in alexithymia might represent a more general impairment in emotional information processing.
It is notable that elevated levels of alexithymia have been reported in a number of clinical disorders including depression,9 eating disorders,10 and obsessive–compulsive disorder11 that have also been shown to exhibit deficits in emotion recognition from faces.12–17 It is plausible that the presence of alexithymia in these clinical groups might have contributed to their problems in recognizing emotion from faces. Importantly for this study, a high prevalence of alexithymia has also been shown in patients with SFD.18, 19
The main aim of this study was to investigate if patients with SFD exhibit impaired recognition of facially expressed emotion. Also of interest was the extent to which concurrent alexithymia contributed to any observed deficits in emotion recognition. With this in mind, a carefully selected sample of patients with SFD and a group of healthy controls were assessed on a widely used test of facial emotion recognition (Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling Test; FEEL Test).20 The presence and severity of alexithymia were established using a robust measure of alexithymia (TAS-26).21, 22 It was expected that patients with SFD would correctly recognize fewer emotional facial expressions than would the controls. However, it was also expected that this effect would be mediated by the presence of concurrent alexithymia.